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<三十四>Kubernetes学习笔记-手动搭建k8s-1.10.4集群插件之dashboard

kubernetes eryajf 6个月前 (12-09) 1524℃ 已收录 0个评论
本文预计阅读时间 26 分钟

1,修改配置文件

将下载的 kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar.gz 解压后,再解压其中的 kubernetes-src.tar.gz 文件。

dashboard 对应的目录是:cluster/addons/dashboard

$pwd
/home/k8s/k8s/kubernetes/cluster/addons/dashboard

$ cp dashboard-controller.yaml{,.orig}

#修改第33行镜像tag,并pull好自己定义的对应tag的镜像。
$ vim dashboard-controller.yaml

#修改前后对比
$diff dashboard-controller.yaml{,.orig}
33c33
<         image: cnych/kubernetes-dashboard-amd64:v1.8.3
---
>         image: k8s.gcr.io/kubernetes-dashboard-amd64:v1.8.3

$ cp dashboard-service.yaml{,.orig}

#在第十一行添加一个labels,定义端口类型为NodePort。
$ vim dashboard-service.yaml

#修改前后对比
$ diff dashboard-service.yaml.orig dashboard-service.yaml
10a11
>   type: NodePort
  • 指定端口类型为 NodePort,这样外界可以通过地址 nodeIP:nodePort 访问 dashboard。

2,执行所有定义文件

$ ls *.yaml
dashboard-configmap.yaml  dashboard-controller.yaml  dashboard-rbac.yaml  dashboard-secret.yaml  dashboard-service.yaml

$ kubectl create -f  .

3,查看分配的 NodePort

$kubectl get deployment kubernetes-dashboard  -n kube-system
NAME                   DESIRED   CURRENT   UP-TO-DATE   AVAILABLE   AGE
kubernetes-dashboard   1         1         1            1           15h

$kubectl --namespace kube-system get pods -o wide
NAME                                    READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE       IP            NODE
coredns-77c989547b-j77lp                1/1       Running   0          15h       172.30.84.3   kube-node1
coredns-77c989547b-t6mxc                1/1       Running   0          15h       172.30.29.3   kube-node3
kubernetes-dashboard-5bb8d4d76c-8kkwt   1/1       Running   0          15h       172.30.84.5   kube-node1

$kubectl get svc kubernetes-dashboard -n kube-system
NAME                   TYPE       CLUSTER-IP     EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)        AGE
kubernetes-dashboard   NodePort   10.254.147.2   <none>        443:8605/TCP   15h
  • dashboard pod 443 端口通过NodePort映射到node的 8605端口。

dashboard 的 --authentication-mode 支持 token、basic,默认为 token。如果使用 basic,则 kube-apiserver 必须配置 ‘--authorization-mode=ABAC’ 和 ‘--basic-auth-file’ 参数。

4,查看 dashboard 支持的命令行参数

$kubectl exec --namespace kube-system -it kubernetes-dashboard-5bb8d4d76c-8kkwt  -- /dashboard --help
2018/11/24 04:04:18 Starting overwatch
Usage of /dashboard:
      --alsologtostderr                   log to standard error as well as files
      --apiserver-host string             The address of the Kubernetes Apiserver to connect to in the format of protocol://address:port, e.g., http://localhost:8080. If not specified, the assumption is that the binary runs inside a Kubernetes cluster and local discovery is attempted.
      --authentication-mode stringSlice   Enables authentication options that will be reflected on login screen. Supported values: token, basic. Default: token.Note that basic option should only be used if apiserver has '--authorization-mode=ABAC' and '--basic-auth-file' flags set. (default [token])
      --auto-generate-certificates        When set to true, Dashboard will automatically generate certificates used to serve HTTPS. Default: false.
      --bind-address ip                   The IP address on which to serve the --secure-port (set to 0.0.0.0 for all interfaces). (default 0.0.0.0)
      --default-cert-dir string           Directory path containing '--tls-cert-file' and '--tls-key-file' files. Used also when auto-generating certificates flag is set. (default "/certs")
      --disable-settings-authorizer       When enabled, Dashboard settings page will not require user to be logged in and authorized to access settings page.
      --enable-insecure-login             When enabled, Dashboard login view will also be shown when Dashboard is not served over HTTPS. Default: false.
      --heapster-host string              The address of the Heapster Apiserver to connect to in the format of protocol://address:port, e.g., http://localhost:8082. If not specified, the assumption is that the binary runs inside a Kubernetes cluster and service proxy will be used.
      --insecure-bind-address ip          The IP address on which to serve the --port (set to 0.0.0.0 for all interfaces). (default 127.0.0.1)
      --insecure-port int                 The port to listen to for incoming HTTP requests. (default 9090)
      --kubeconfig string                 Path to kubeconfig file with authorization and master location information.
      --log_backtrace_at traceLocation    when logging hits line file:N, emit a stack trace (default :0)
      --log_dir string                    If non-empty, write log files in this directory
      --logtostderr                       log to standard error instead of files
      --metric-client-check-period int    Time in seconds that defines how often configured metric client health check should be run. Default: 30 seconds. (default 30)
      --port int                          The secure port to listen to for incoming HTTPS requests. (default 8443)
      --stderrthreshold severity          logs at or above this threshold go to stderr (default 2)
      --system-banner string              When non-empty displays message to Dashboard users. Accepts simple HTML tags. Default: ''.
      --system-banner-severity string     Severity of system banner. Should be one of 'INFO|WARNING|ERROR'. Default: 'INFO'. (default "INFO")
      --tls-cert-file string              File containing the default x509 Certificate for HTTPS.
      --tls-key-file string               File containing the default x509 private key matching --tls-cert-file.
      --token-ttl int                     Expiration time (in seconds) of JWE tokens generated by dashboard. Default: 15 min. 0 - never expires (default 900)
  -v, --v Level                           log level for V logs
      --vmodule moduleSpec                comma-separated list of pattern=N settings for file-filtered logging
command terminated with exit code 2

5,访问 dashboard

为了集群安全,从 1.7 开始,dashboard 只允许通过 https 访问,如果使用 kube proxy 则必须监听 localhost 或 127.0.0.1,对于 NodePort 没有这个限制,但是仅建议在开发环境中使用。

对于不满足这些条件的登录访问,在登录成功后浏览器不跳转,始终停在登录界面

参考:
https://github.com/kubernetes/dashboard/wiki/Accessing-Dashboard—1.7.X-and-above
https://github.com/kubernetes/dashboard/issues/2540

  • kubernetes-dashboard 服务暴露了 NodePort,可以使用 https://NodeIP:NodePort 地址访问 dashboard;
  • 通过 kube-apiserver 访问 dashboard;
  • 通过 kubectl proxy 访问 dashboard:

1,通过 kubectl proxy 访问 dashboard(了解)

启动代理:

$ kubectl proxy --address='localhost' --port=8086 --accept-hosts='^*$'
Starting to serve on 127.0.0.1:8086
  • --address 必须为 localhost 或 127.0.0.1;
  • 需要指定 \--accept-hosts 选项,否则浏览器访问 dashboard 页面时提示 “Unauthorized”;

浏览器访问 URL:http://127.0.0.1:8086/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/https:kubernetes-dashboard:/proxy

2,通过 kube-apiserver 访问 dashboard(应用)

获取集群服务地址列表:

$kubectl cluster-info
Kubernetes master is running at https://192.168.106.110:8443
CoreDNS is running at https://192.168.106.110:8443/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/coredns:dns/proxy
kubernetes-dashboard is running at https://192.168.106.110:8443/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/https:kubernetes-dashboard:/proxy

To further debug and diagnose cluster problems, use 'kubectl cluster-info dump'.

必须通过 kube-apiserver 的安全端口(https)访问 dashbaord,访问时浏览器需要使用自定义证书,否则会被 kube-apiserver 拒绝访问。

创建和导入自定义证书的步骤,参考:A.浏览器访问kube-apiserver安全端口

浏览器访问 URL:https://172.27.129.105:6443/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/https:kubernetes-dashboard:/proxy/
对于 virtuabox 做了端口映射: http://127.0.0.1:6443/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/https:kubernetes-dashboard:/proxy/

现在,直接使用刚刚通过kubectl cluster-info获取到的地址进行访问:

6,创建登录 Dashboard 的 token 和 kubeconfig 配置文件

上面提到,Dashboard 默认只支持 token 认证,所以如果使用 KubeConfig 文件,需要在该文件中指定 token,不支持使用 client 证书认证。

1,创建登录 token

$ kubectl create sa dashboard-admin -n kube-system

$ kubectl create clusterrolebinding dashboard-admin --clusterrole=cluster-admin --serviceaccount=kube-system:dashboard-admin

$ ADMIN_SECRET=$(kubectl get secrets -n kube-system | grep dashboard-admin | awk '{print $1}')

$ DASHBOARD_LOGIN_TOKEN=$(kubectl describe secret -n kube-system ${ADMIN_SECRET} | grep -E '^token' | awk '{print $2}')

$ echo ${DASHBOARD_LOGIN_TOKEN}

eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IiJ9.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.g_llVGHmryCqQ61BdDlQJ4tsuX1bEg3hzYCZb_cvoz6RkNgPt85QUQJSKymXvpzFYv8sq09jR6hrkgJ8rJpSMVSgbOswu_w5aV9RbiLaquv0d9m6WDR7FGgDGAZxYf8ag0DDzHesnAOUuNnSweklbQTbyB90X5Okff8332PemnMzcZzZP4je70T-OTyCHygcckWji_ZEEC5k3WXRwEhMMZO5cWVAuneNCpVSEJOKw1jRei8CC26FcPVm4vU24u3b0xQDeE6gFya2zIsJPMyaWVKhx_CtIh-uwSbf8SiRBzk767BBFye3sEG-D5NPrq65eB1wDNOOE8YxzomMwtR5aA

将上边输出的token输入到刚刚dashboard需要验证的界面,点击令牌,然后复制进去

点击登录即可访问首页了。

2,创建使用 token 的 KubeConfig 文件

$ source /opt/k8s/bin/environment.sh

# 设置集群参数
$ kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  --certificate-authority=/etc/kubernetes/cert/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  --kubeconfig=dashboard.kubeconfig

# 设置客户端认证参数,使用上面创建的 Token
$ kubectl config set-credentials dashboard_user \
  --token=${DASHBOARD_LOGIN_TOKEN} \
  --kubeconfig=dashboard.kubeconfig

# 设置上下文参数
$ kubectl config set-context default \
  --cluster=kubernetes \
  --user=dashboard_user \
  --kubeconfig=dashboard.kubeconfig

# 设置默认上下文
$ kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=dashboard.kubeconfig

将如上操作所生成的dashboard.kubeconfig下载到本地,然后在登录界面,选择kubeconfig的方式,将刚刚本地的config文件导入进来,点击登录登入到 Dashboard。

由于缺少 Heapster 插件,当前 dashboard 不能展示 Pod、Nodes 的 CPU、内存等统计数据和图表。

7,参考

https://github.com/kubernetes/dashboard/wiki/Access-control
https://github.com/kubernetes/dashboard/issues/2558
https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/configuration/organize-cluster-access-kubeconfig/


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